Discussion on the antiseptic effect of benzoic aci

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Discussion on the preservative effect of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in meat products (Part 2)

2. Discussion on the use of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate in meat processing

in Europe and Australia, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate can appear in meat products, but they are not recommended for children (E210, E211). In Canada, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate can be used in packaged fish and meat products. In India, sodium benzoate is considered to exist widely in nature, close to natural additives, and can be used as a food preservative in meat products. However, in many countries, such as Japan and the United States, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are not allowed to be used in meat products. In Japan, the production of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate has been stopped, and there are some restrictions on imported food (Ling Guanting, 2003)

according to the regulations of the United States FAO, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate can be used for quick-frozen fish sticks, fish pieces and fish stuffing products, but meat products are not included in the scope of use. In addition, in the countries listed above that allow the use of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate, these two additives are not recommended as preservatives for meat products

in China, benzoic acid and sodium benzoate can also be used as preservatives in some literatures on meat product science and processing technology (Kong Baohua, 2003; GE Changrong, 2002). At an exchange conference of the China Food Additives Association in 2004, some enterprises put forward "suggestions on Amending the hygienic standard for the use of food additives to prohibit the use of flour brighteners (benzoyl peroxide)", which was valued by the participants (chemical industry, 2004). Because benzoyl peroxide will eventually form benzoic acid in flour, some domestic enterprises have also questioned the prohibition of the use of formic acid and sodium benzoate in meat products, causing controversy

is it necessary to revise the hygienic standard for the use of food additives to expand its scope of use? First of all, from the anti-corrosion mechanism of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate, we know that benzoic acid preservatives act with their undissociated molecules, and the pH value of food has a great impact on the percentage content of benzoic acid that will have a serious impact on the results if benzoic acid is not dissociated in food, that is, the pH value of food has a great impact on the anti-corrosion effect of benzoic acid. It can be seen from table 1 that under the same acidity, different additives have different effects. When the pH value is 5, the undissociated molecule of benzoic acid is 1/3 of sorbic acid, that is, in the food

with pH value of 5, the antibacterial effect of sorbic acid is three times that of benzoic acid (Hou Zhenjian, 2004). However, when the pH value is below 4, the effect is not much different, so benzoic acid preservatives are generally used in soft drinks, jam, pickles and other acidic foods. The pH value of meat products is generally 5.3-6.5. Even for fermented meat products, such as Dali salami sausage and German salami sausage, the pH value is only between 4.7-5.3 (Kong Baohua, 2003), and the preservative effect of benzoic acid is also limited. Therefore, in addition to its partial effect in fermented meat products, benzoic acid is difficult to prevent corrosion in general meat products

secondly, we compare the toxicity of benzoic acid, sodium benzoate and sorbic acid. Table 2 shows the LD and Adi of several common food additives, as well as the maximum dosage and price comparison stipulated in China's national standards. It can be seen that sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are less toxic than benzoic acid, and their antiseptic effect is better and safer than sodium benzoate. The advantages of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are relatively stable in the air and low cost. However, in the sealed state, sorbic acid and potassium sorbate are also very stable. The thermal stability of potassium sorbate is relatively good, and the decomposition temperature is as high as 270 ℃. Because the amount of food additives is very small, it will not significantly increase the cost of meat products. Many enterprises have changed their systems and are still developing to varying degrees. Therefore, many countries have gradually adopted sorbic acid and potassium sorbate to replace benzoic acid and sodium benzoate

in addition, the solubility of benzoic acid is low under acidic conditions. If the mixing is not uniform, benzoic acid crystals will precipitate locally, resulting in local product additives exceeding the standard (Hou Zhenjian, 2004). Benzoic acid also has antagonistic effect with calcium chloride, and has similar effect with sodium chloride, isobutyric acid, gluconic acid, cysteine salt, etc. (GE Changrong, 2002). The addition of benzoic acid will also make food produce astringency, and even destroy the flavor of meat products. Therefore, it is not mentioned that benzoic acid

and sodium benzoate are advocated to be used as preservatives in meat processing after a period of use, adding more than 3T high field superconducting magnets, multi-channel spectrometers for MRI (more than 64 channels), CT detectors, PET detectors (based on silicon photomultiplier tubes), biodegradable vascular scaffold materials, dialysis materials, medical grade high molecular materials, implanted electrodes, standard materials for clinical inspection and quality control and other core components

in fact, adding benzoic acid and sodium benzoate is not the only preservative method for meat products. The use of natural preservatives, such as nisin, chitosan and spice extract, can also achieve antibacterial and fresh-keeping effects, which is also a development direction of meat products industry. The purpose of preserving meat products can also be achieved by improving processing conditions, improving food packaging, heat treatment or irradiation sterilization of products, low-temperature storage, etc. In the final analysis, the most important thing is to strengthen health management and reduce pollution from the source

3. Conclusion

the purpose of adding food preservatives is to improve food quality, extend shelf life, facilitate processing and preserve nutrients. As long as benzoic acid and sodium benzoate are added according to the variety range and dosage specified by the state, it is allowed and safe. It is true that there are also some deficiencies in the legal provisions of food additives in China. As food scientists, facing the unprecedented public attention to food safety or the pressure of enterprises to pursue interests, they should demonstrate with a responsible and scientific attitude, and cannot imagine out of thin air, arbitrarily distort food preservatives, mislead the public, and cause the public to lose confidence in the modern food industry and even panic. In that case, the development of food industry and the solution of food safety problems will fall into a passive position

Weng jianglai, Ma Changwei, School of food science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University

source: food additives

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